poultry feed pellets processing technology

Poultry include many animals, like Chicken, Broiler, Duck, Geese, Pigeon, Emu, Swan, Ostrich, Partridge, Quail, Turkey, etc.

For poultry farming, a single kind of feed can't meet the nutritional needs of animals. Production practice has proved that only through the scientific collocation of all kinds of feed raw materials can we get a fit feed with sufficient, balanced nutrition and good palatability.

poultry feed pellet


The compound poultry feed pellets is made up of various feed ingredients according to poultry's nutritional needs and feeding characteristics. The proportion of all kinds of feed ingredients determined is poultry feed formula. In order to design the formula for poultry feed, it is necessary to study the principle of poultry nutrition, determine the nutritional requirements of poultry (feeding standards), study the characteristics of poultry feed raw materials, determine the nutritional value of all kinds of feed, and consider the status of feed resources, the price and the possibility of stable production. The purpose of poultry feed formula design is to rationally choose raw materials with good nutrition and low cost, and to produce high quality compound feed scientifically so as to carry out the cultivation and obtain the greatest economic benefit.

Generally one chicken can eat 150g of feed pellets per day. So multiply by how many chicken you raise, you can get the capacity of the chicken feed pellet plant.
 

The processing technology for poultry feed pellets

The processing of compound poultry feed is generally divided into the following steps: feed raw materials receiving and cleaning, raw materials crushing, batching, mixing, pelleting, and packaging of finished feed products.


1. Raw material cleaning: mainly removing impurities from raw materials, such as iron chips and stones.

2. Crushing: the crushing of feed raw materials is one of the most important processes in poultry feed processing. This process is to reduce the size of the bulk or granular feed material and crush into the size required for poultry feeding standards. It is related to the quality, yield, electricity consumption and cost of the compound feed. After being crushed, the surface area of the raw material is increased, which is convenient for poultry digestion and absorption. The grain size of broiler chicks feed is better to be medium size, that is, the average diameter of grains is 0.7-0.9mm. With the increase of age, the particle size of comminution can increase correspondingly, and the size for producing laying hen feeds should be above 0.8mm.

3. Batching: That is to say, the process of feeding and weighing various raw materials according to a given formula using a specific batching device, which is an important link to ensure the quality of formulated feed pellets products. Considering that the weighing accuracy and some components may be corrosive, premix additives are usually manually weighed and put directly into the mixing equipment.

chicken duck pigeon ostrich poultry feed pellets

4. Mixing: Feed mixing means that the ingredients in the feed formula are mixed uniformly according to the specified weight ratio, making each small part of the whole, even a single feed pellet, has the same proportion of the ingredients as the required formula. The quality of feed mixture is very important for ensuring the quality of compound feed pellets. To achieve uniform mixing, micronutrients, such as amino acids, vitamins and minerals, should be pre-mixed to make premix feed. At premixing section, the larger amount of composition should be added first and then the smaller amount of composition. The mixing time should be determined by testing the mixing uniformity of the feed. The coefficient of variation (CV) of premix shall not be greater than 5%, while the coefficient of variation (CV) of formulated feed shall not be greater than 10%.

5. Pelletizing: generally the feed mixture is added 4-6% of water (normally tempered with steam, suitable for temperature at about 98℃). When enters the feed pellet mill, feed water content increases from air-dried state (moisture content about 10% to 12%) at ambient temperature to about 10% to 12% at temperature 80 to 90℃. Water plays a role of lubrication when granulating, and heat causes gelatinization of raw starch on the surface of plant feed ingredients. Feed then is extruded from the outlet of ring die feed pellet mill, and further raises the feed temperature to nearly 90℃. Therefore, these feed pellets shall be cooled to a slightly higher temperature than the ambient temperature, and at the same time be dried to moisture content below 12% can they go to next section.

For making young poultry feed, like for chick, the feed pellet crumbler is also needed to reduce the pellet size.

6. Screening, cooling and packaging: after granulating, compound feed was screened to remove debris and powder, as well as cooled down temperature and moisture, and then stored after packaging. The slag and powder are returned to process.
 

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Main procedure of compound poultry feed pellets

At present, the production of poultry feed is usually made by weight proportioning, batch mixing and batch production. This production technology can be divided into two types in practice: one is the production technology of crushing, batching, mixing, and the other is the compound batching, crushing and mixing.
  • Raw materials reception—cleaning and removal of impurities (sieving, magnetic selection) – crushing—batching—mixing—pelletizing—sieving & cooling—feed pellets packaging (bulk)—power product packaging (bulk)
This technology has the characteristic that the raw material can be crushed by variety, which can fully exert the crusher’s efficiency. For example, by material features, poultry breed (or growth stage), or physiological requirements of the object, user can choose different grinding size. However, as the raw materials are smashed by varieties, more batching bins are needed; at the same time, frequent replacement of raw materials makes operation complex. But this technology is quite suitable for poultry feed production which has varieties of raw materials, varied formulation and high requirement on matching ratio.
 
  • Raw materials reception (cleaning impurities) – batching — sifting — crushing — mixing — pelletizing — sieving & cooling — feed pellets packaging (bulk) — power product packaging (bulk)
 
The characteristics of this process are:
  • Batching before crushing makes all feed raw materials have uniform particle size, which is easy for feed pellet production.
  • It can save silos, because the batching bin is also the storage silo of raw materials and excipients, and the crushing chamber only plays a buffer role.
  • The continuity of the process requires the equipment with good supporting performance and high technical level. The sieving procedure after batching makes the powdery raw materials and excipients that do not need crushing can be sent directly to the mixer for mixing.
 

Factors affecting the quality of poultry feed pellets

There are many factors affecting the quality of poultry feed. In addition to whether the feed formula is scientific and reasonable, the quality of the raw materials and the quality of the processed feed will directly affect the quality of compound feed. Feed formula determines the nutritional value of finished feed products. Either low nutrition level or unreasonable proportion of nutrients will seriously affect the feeding effect of breeding objects, and at the same time, cause waste of feed raw materials. In addition, if the processing quality, such as mixing uniformity, particle size and degree of gelatinization, can't meet standard requirement, it also can't guarantee the advantages of the original formula, and will affect the feeding effect of poultry feed pellets.
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